Tuesday, 2 October 2012

Robotic Project: Satay Fish and Maritime-Based Product


1.0  Introduction                                                                                                                           
2.0  Satay fish and Marine-based food production (Lumut and Pangkor)                                
3.0  Hasil Laut Jamilah                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
4.0  Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)                                                                                                                   
5.0  Automation on Packaging the Product                                                                                                                                                

1.0  Introduction
Add caption

Figure 1: Satay Fish

Based on an order by the Minister of Agriculture in 2001, FAMA was asked to prepare a research about the potential of fish based industries. The research started at 1 February 2002 to Mei 2002 in Malaysia. From the research, some conclusion been made:

Therefore, it is expected that this fishery products will be a large agricultural sector in general and thus will increase demand for this product in particular. It includes
·         health food
·         food safety
·         food quality
·         Interesting performances (including packaging)
·         Easy to obtain food (convenience foods)
·         Fast food / ready to cook
·         Easy to get

There are some issues involve in the findings of the research. The main problem faced by entrepreneurs in securing the supply of chips is a fish. This is because there is problems in terms of fish prices are expensive and difficult to get in continuous basis. It probably happened because the weather as most of the fish supply is obtained from the states on the East Coast.

Because of the monsoon season at the end of each year for these states, then the fish cannot be executed as the ordinary months.

Aid needed by the local snack makers in terms of machines and equipment to make and process the snacks. This is because most of the makers of indigenous people have limited financial capital for machinery and equipment that were so expensive.

Some suggestion made by the research there are:

  • Government Assistance based on Capital Physical and Financial Capital. This is because the majority of local snack makers are Bumiputera entrepreneurs conducting small-scale enterprises and has no enough capital to expand their enterprises. Government can assist the entrepreneurs in improving production their chips through certain incentives, such as equipment making / processing chips easier by the automation.
  • Ensuring Quality Control System in Processing and Preparation Snacks. Cleanliness and sanitation as an important aspect of food preparation determine the foods safe are to eat. Food preparation in unhygienic conditions can cause various problems such as poisoning of food. Although the chips industry is managed on a small scale by local entrepreneurs, proper knowledge of hygiene and sanitation are not being regarded lightly. Therefore all who are involved in processing and preparation of these chips should be exposed to information related to hygiene and sanitation in order chips produced is clean and safe from contamination.
  • The application of HACCP system in the industry Snacks. HACCP or Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point 'is termed as hazard critical control points in food processing. Critical control point the material, place, practice or process if not properly controlled and monitored will lead to food contamination. These systems identify the source food hazards and establish control systems. It also focused on measures prevention in each of the food processing and analysis rather than on the final product. With the HACCP system will help increase the confidence users on the local snacks.
  • Packaging and Labeling. The irony is that this aspect is less taken care of by the local snack entrepreneurs while it is important in the marketing of snacks. Accordingly, these elements have to be taken seriously since it is one of the key in the control of moldy food quality. The use of appropriate packaging materials will determine life expectancy and acceptance of products in the market. An attractive design packaging and labels as well as easy to handle will be increase sales and quality of packaged snacks
  • Promotion. To expand and enhance local production of snacks, properly implemented large-scale campaign to introduce snacks as one of the local traditional food not only to the people local and even foreign tourists.

In this study, the researcher focuses on the HACCP and the automation on packaging the product. It is to gives some alternative for the entrepreneurs to expand their business using some automation and robotic application. 

2.0 Satay fish and Marine-based food production (Lumut and Pangkor)

Lumut is a coastal town in the state of Perak, Malaysia, situated about 84 km from Ipoh, 12 km from the town of Sitiawan and it is the gateway to Pangkor Island. It is a quaint little town famous for its beautiful seashell and coral handicrafts. This once little-known fishing town has since become the Lumut home base of the Royal Malaysian Navy.

In the early days, Lumut known as Tanah Merah was a sheltered natural jetty. A large Hock Chew community eventually docked there and made its way to Sitiawan. The estuary at that time was characterised by damp mossy soils on reddish earth. Tin and lumber from as far as Kinta were transported here by elephants and sampans.

Figure 2: Location of Pulau Pangkor and Lumut
Pangkor Island is situated off the coast of Perak, Malaysia are both now known as a tourist resort and a fishing centre. The island is inhabited by mainly Chinese fishermen on the southern and eastern part while to the west lays a Malay Kampong fishing village. Together they supply a major portion of the marine produce to nearby towns. Excess supplies are preserved in the form of salted / roasted/ bbq items, packed and sold in shops throughout the country. Indeed Pangkor and Lumut are famous as a centre of satay fish and related marine products in Malaysia, and are favourite takeaway items for tourists and visitors.

Figure 3: Satay Fish and Other Marine Product
Satay fish is a snack made of fish meat coated with exotic spices. They come with a selective of flavour, size and shape. It is a must have product that you should try when you visit Lumut and Pangkor. Another product that popular by the tourist is Dried Cuttlefish of Sotong Kering. Both products consider as Seafood Snack that ready to eat.

3.0 Hasil Laut Jamilah

Figure 4: Hasil Laut Jamilah Store
Hasil Laut Jamilah is one of Bumiputera Entrepreneur in Lumut, Perak that guided by Jabatan Perikanan Negeri Perak. The shop is located in Lumut Perak since 1985 and own by Puan Jamilah. In the shop she sells a variety of maritime-based products such as satay fish, salted fish, anchovies, dried squid, etc… but most of the product that have the optimum of demand by local and foreign tourist is satay fish. The store open seven days a week from as early as 8.00 am to 10.00 pm according to costumer (sometimes up 12.00 am).
Figure 5: Products sell in Hasil Laut Jamilah
For time being, she runs the business with her husband and two daughters and hires two workers to take care of the shop, entertaining the costumer and packaging the goods.
Figure 6: Other maritime-based product sell at Hasil Laut Jamilah

Figure 7: The variety of product

The packaging of the good for the product sell in the store is made by third party. It is because they don’t have the equipment to make the packaging set. For salted fish they only use the traditional style of packaging. 

Figure 8: Salted fish

4.0 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. HACCP is a systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards. It is a proactive strategy where hazards are identified and assessed, and control measures are developed to prevent, reduce, or eliminate a hazard. For example, one identified hazard in ready-to-eat turkey (deli meat) is the presence of Salmonella bacteria. To eliminate Salmonella, one control measure is a cooking process where a minimum internal product temperature of 165°F for 15 seconds is achieved and documented.
There are seven fundamental HACCP principles:
Principle 1 — Conduct a hazard analysis.
Principle 2 — Determine the critical control points.
Principle 3 — Establish critical limits.
Principle 4 — Establish monitoring procedures.
Principle 5 — Establish corrective actions.
Principle 6 — Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures.
Principle 7 — Establish verification procedures
To apply the HACCP standard is a long way to go. However, it can be made little by little in order to achieve the standard of HACCP. First step is to develop a HACCP plan by describe the fish and fish product. The product description should include the following information:

• The raw material of the product;
• The source of the raw material;
• A list of all the ingredients (including food additives);
• The preservation method i.e. what steps are taken to extend the shelf life of the product (chilling, freezing, drying etc.)?
• The intended use of the product –i.e. “Is it intended to be eaten raw or cooked by the consumer?”
• The packaging (e.g. vacuum packed, plastic liner in cardboard cartons etc.);
• How the product is to be transported (including the method of transportation eg. closed refrigerated vehicle maintained at below -18°C and
• Storage conditions (e.g. frozen, refrigerated, at ambient temperature etc.)
• The product standards applicable to the product (Refer to the Food Standards Code and the AQIS Guideline – Product Standards)

In order to clearly see what we should do, follow the 7th step below:

Step 1. Identify and list all of the products you process – Frozen Raw King Prawns
Step 2. Complete a Product Description for each product

Table 1: Product Description
Product Description
Product Raw Material
Biji nangka fish
Source of Raw Material
Catch area e.g. Pulau Sembilan
Ingredients added (Including food additives)
Sodium metabisulphite
Processing Method / Preservation Method
Dried and cook
Final Product
Satay Fish
Intended Use
Product is intended as snack
Plastic liner in cardboard cartons
Transported by an boat and by road
Air-tight storage
Finished product requirements

List Finished product requirements
Food Standards Code for finished product requirements for microbiological, chemical requirements etc
Finished product requirements
(Importing Country)
List Finished product requirements of importing country as applicable
Trade Description
(Product Label)
Product label must bear an accurate Trade Description –a Guideline to compliance with the Export Control (Fish & Fish Products) Orders 2005

Step 3. Develop a process Flow Diagram for this product
Step 4. Verify the Flow diagram - Carry out operations as normal and confirm that each of the steps of processing is documented, in the correct order, on the diagram.
Table 2: Process Flowchart

Step Process
1 Receival
2 Sort / grade
3 Dip
4 Chill (delay step – may not occur all the time)
5 Weigh
6 Package and apply trade description
7 Freeze
8 Storage
9 Despatch

Process Flow Diagram Verified by:……………………………………Signed:………………


Step 5. Complete a Hazard Analysis
Step 6. Complete a HACCP summary table (see attachment)
Step 7. Keep Records

5.0 Automation on Packaging the Product
Packaging engineering is an industrial discipline that crosses many engineering, marketing, and sales boundaries. It involves everything from the development of packaging materials to their compliance with labelling laws and their design to promote the sale of products. Industrial design fields like packaging engineering increasingly require expertise in a variety of fundamental sciences, such as physics, materials science, and chemistry.
Product packaging is one of the most frequent cases for automation in industry. It can be encountered with small machines (ex. packaging grain like food products) and large systems such as machines for packaging medications.
In this case, in order to use a very sophisticated and higher cost equipment and system is not an option since it just a small SMI. However, in order to install a simple automated packaging machine is still can be some consideration.  

Figure 9: Traditional packaging and labelling process.
The irony is that the packaging and labeling aspect is less taken care of by the local snack entrepreneurs while it is important in the marketing of snacks. Accordingly, these elements have to be taken seriously since it is one of the aspects of food quality control.

Figure 10: Some Packaging and labeling

There are so many types of automated packaging machines in the market such as vertical packaging machines and horizontal automatic packaging machines. However there are still some issues involve in the selection of the machines. Is the machine complied with the standard we used? Is it can perform multiple style of packaging? And most importantly, is it worth installed it? 
Figure11: Packaging machines

From the earlier research, the researcher said that the use of appropriate packaging materials will determine life expectancy and the acceptance of products in the market. An attractive design packaging and labels as well as easy to handle will be increase sales and quality of packaged snack.

Figure12: Automatical packaging production line

Another problem for the Bumiputera entrepreneurs is not enough capital to buy the entire automation machine. There are still many small and medium entrepreneurs (SMEs) in this country are not aware of the facilities and assistance provided by the government to help develop their business. International Trade and Industry Minister Datuk Seri Mustapa Mohamed said it includes help and advice on micro-credit loan of RM50, 000 through the SME Bank to entrepreneurs who are eligible.

From the research by Mohd Nor Hidayad Bin Hambali showed that all the respondent agree that of the  supports from the government such as financial and credit, trainings and development, advice and consulting services, marketing and business opportunities support, as well as infrastructure, enhance the success of Bumiputera entrepreneurs of SME’s entrepreneurship.  He added Agencies such as Ministry Entrepreneur and Cooperative Development (MECD), Institute of Standards and Research Malaysia (SIRIM), Malaysian Entrepreneur Development Centre (MEDEC), Institute Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) and the Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMIDEC) was established for implement various programs, including training programs to increase number of successful Bumiputera entrepreneurs. Various specific funding to assist Bumiputera entrepreneurs to start or expand their business as the New Entrepreneurs Fund, Fund for Small and Medium and Venture Capital is also created.

Figure13: Labelling Machines


HACCP is a systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards. The successful development and implementation of an effective HACCP Plan can be achieved by following the checklist prepared and referring to the specific examples which have been made by other producers. It is a minor step for local entrepreneurs to enter the big boys’ game in international trading.
Automation in the production can help the SMEs such as Hasil Laut Jamilah to advance the production process and at the same time reduce the dependence on third parties. Good packaging and labeling can help the entrepreneurs to be recognized and to expand their business. It might cost a big investment but it will give a great return in the end.  There are a numbers of government agencies that can provide help and fund for SME’s entrepreneurs such as Ministry Entrepreneur and Cooperative Development (MECD), Institute of Standards and Research Malaysia (SIRIM), Malaysian Entrepreneur Development Centre (MEDEC), Institute Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) and the Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMIDEC). 


............,(2002), Kajian Berkaitan Industri Keropok di Malaysia. Federal Agriculture Marketing Authority,FAMA: Malaysia .

Australian Government. Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service.,(2005)., HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP):A Guideline to Compliance with the Export Control (Fish & Fish Products) Orders 2005 Issue,: Australia.

Keener,K., (2009)., Safe Food Guidelines For Small Meat And Poultry Processors, Overview Of HACCp, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point., Purdue University.

Muhamad Nor Hidayat Hambali., (2011)., Faktor Bantuan Kerajaan Yang Meningkatkan Kejayaan Usahawan Industri Kecil Dan Sederhana Bumiputera Di Sabak Bernam Selangor.,Universiti Teknologi Malaysia: Projek Sarjana Muda.  


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