This paper consist the Design for the Environment (DfE) in all the concept and method that relate to DfE for design practice that seek to reduce the environmental impact of product and process. This study tried to determine the benefit of DfE to the company or manufacturer. The method that include in DfE such as the design, life cycle, Product Life cycle (PLC) approach, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and how the DfE concept implement in real life product. However, in this study it just focuses on Hybrid car. In this study it shows that there is a compulsory DfE concept in order to develop the Sustainability Development. At the same time, Multi global companies should play the role of ‘go green’ concept to educate their consumer by the implementation of “green technology” and “green concept” in their product.
Sustainable Product Design and Manufacturing (MMFU5013)
Sustainable development refer to the mode development of how human can manage their resource which the aim is to meet human needs and at the same time preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for future generations to come (Vezzoli and Manzini, 2008, pg 1-13). Sustainable development with the concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems to ensure that the use of environment resources to satisfy the present demands accordingly with the social challenges faced by humanity (Giudice, et al. 2006: pg 1-25).
The concept of sustainable development has in the past most often been broken out into three constituent parts (Hauschid, at al,2008): environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and socio-political sustainability.
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is employed to forecast the impacts of different (production) alternatives to investigate the potential environmental effects of the whole system, thus being able to choose the most environmentally friendly (Giudice, 2006: pg 83-86). A life cycle analysis can serve as a tool when determining the environmental impact of a product or process (Giudice, et al. 2006: pg 97-103). Proper LCAs with the good methodological structure can help in a decision making by comparing several different products according to several categories, such as energy use, toxicity, acidification, CO2 emissions, ozone depletion, resource depletion and many others (Georgakellos, 2006). On the other hand, designers can make decisions about which environmental hazard to focus on in order to make sure that the product more environmentally friendly.
DfE employs a variety of design approaches where the aim is to reduce the overall human health and environmental impact of a product, process or service, where impacts are considered across its life cycle where it can only be obtain when all the entire life cycle of the product has taken into consideration at the early design stage.
Ecodesign is an approach to design of a product with special consideration for the environmental impacts of the product during its whole lifecycle. In a life cycle assessment the life cycle of a product is usually divided into procurement, manufacture, use and disposal. Ecodesign is a growing responsibility and understanding of our ecological footprint on the planet. Green awareness, over population, industrialization and an increased environmental population has led to the questioning of consumer values. It is imperative to search for new building solutions that are environmentally friendly and lead to a reduction in the consumption of materials and energy.
1.1 Background of study
Ecodesign or Design for Environment was the activities where the aim was to improve the environmental performance of products (Hauschild, et al, 2003; and Vezzoli, and Manzini, 2008). There are three main concepts that fall under the Design for Environment umbrella:
· Design for environmental processing and manufacturing: Started from the mining of raw material. This includes the minimization the environment effect such as waste and hazardous by-products, air pollution, energy expenditure and other factors. This ensures that raw material extraction (mining, drilling, etc.), processing (processing reusable materials, metal melting, etc.) and manufacturing are done using materials and processes which are not dangerous to the environment or the employees working on said processes.
· Design for environmental packaging: Involve with supply chain management and logistic. This ensures that the materials used in packaging are environmentally friendly, which can be achieved through the reuse of shipping products, elimination of unnecessary paper and packaging products, efficient use of materials and space, use of recycled and/or recyclable materials.
· Design for disposal or reuse: The end-of-life of a product is very important, because some products emit dangerous chemicals into the air, ground and water after they are disposed of in a landfill. Planning for the reuse or refurbishing of a product will change the types of materials that would be used, how they could later be disassembled and reused, and the environmental impacts such materials have.
By implementing the Design for Environment concept, it is a hope that the company can also promote the Go-green concept which means to pursue knowledge and practices that can lead to more environmentally friendly and ecologically responsible decisions and lifestyles, which can help protect the environment and sustain its natural resources for current and future generations.
These paper will focus on Design for the Environment (DfE) concept that been implement on a product base company to identify a collective term of design practices that used to reduce the environmental effect cause by the product or the process of manufacturing. It also tries to determine how the company try to implement the practice to sustain in the business and at the same time promote the go-green technology within the DfE.
2.0 Literature Studies
A sustainable development is a development that meets present demand without compromising the future generation’s needs. Nowadays, sustainability is focusing on the economic, social and environmental issues.
Design for the Environment is a guideline that prevents pollution and the risk pollution to humans and environment. Hauschild, et al, (2003) reported that in 50 years to come, economic will performed with less than one tenth of the negative impact. In today’s manufacturing industries, a lot of focus had been seen towards reducing the negative impact towards the environment. Technology that were to be introduces to third world country should be equip with green technology since they growth at a rapidly.
Design for Environment (DfE) principles will eventually lead a company to minimize numbers and types of parts, reducing heat and power consumption, and deploying replaceable/upgradable modules which also tend to increase products’ reliability and lifespan.
Besides that, it will also promotes lower cost of materials and greater value at end of life; increasing the efficiency of assembly lines and will also help consumers and company to a more efficient storage and shipping which will in turn bring in competitive advantages due to less power consumption and reduced risk of supply-chain interruptions stemming from restricted substances.
Hauschild, et al, (2003) stated that there are three main concepts that fall under the Design for Environment umbrella that is design for environmental processing and manufacturing, design for environmental packaging and design for disposal or reuse.
Design for environmental and manufacturing involves in non toxic process and production material, using minimum energy and minimizing the emission, waste and co-product. This is to make sure that raw material extraction such as mining; drilling, processing and manufacturing are done using materials which are not dangerous to the environment or the employers.
Design for environmental packaging involves in the consideration are a minimum of packaging materials, reusable of pallets, recyclable packaging material and biodegradable packaging material. This is done so that the materials used in packaging are environmentally friendly and elimination of unnecessary paper and packaging products.
According to European Organization (2009), “A life cycle inventory and life cycle assessment will act as the guidelines to help in the usage of packaging”. This will help to reduce the impact on environment and ecological footprint.
LCI and LCA will take a deep look into the whole process of supply chains from the beginning of basic function towards the end of life and rebirth of a new product.
A sustainable packaging will results in the improvement of the long term of longevity of natural ecosystems. Besides that, a sustainable packaging must meet the functional and economic needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability is not necessarily an end state but is a continuing process of improvement
The third concept in Design for Environment is design for disposal or reuse. Calcott, et al. (2005) stated that the end-of-life of a product is very important, as some products could produces dangerous chemicals into the air, ground and water after they are disposed of in a landfill and planning for the reuse or refurbishing of a product will change the types of materials used. A few consideration in the third concept that is material selection to enable reuse, try to avoid filter material in plastics such as fibreglass. Besides that, the design itself should be easy to be disassemblies and must be easily separated.
Items used in automobiles, home appliances and furniture can are now made and design to be repairable and disassembly for recycling purpose. Even now, some of the items that are sold to public was made and constructed from recyclable materials such as steel, aluminium and glass. Most of companies nowadays tend to be extra careful in their selection of materials and manufacturing processes. This help companies to create products that are comparable in price and performance to non-sustainable products
2.1 Benefits for companies.
2.1.1 Consumer Awareness
Recent survey on consumer awareness to the environment by Macromill (2010), there are 25% of consumer that are keen to contribute to environmental protection even it involves in some expense while another 50% are willing to contribute if no expense involves.
This shows that in today’s world, consumers are increasingly concerned about the environment quality of product that they purchase. Consumers tend to select product that is environmentally safe product. Therefore, implementing DfE or green design can benefit an organization's profitability and market share.
Many producers are now advertising their products and organization as being environmental friendly and they would also choosing their suppliers based on their environmental performance record. Therefore, green design is a business strategy that along with protecting the environment, increases organizational competitiveness.
2.1.2 Better product design
Franklin et. al(2004) stated that green design emphasizes fewer parts and materials in product designs which will reduce the inventory volume required to produce the products .This will eventually lead to the reduction of hazardous materials in the products which in turn makes the workplace safer, and the accident potentials lower. Many companies nowadays do recognize that green design is consistent with competitive product design.
2.1.3 Regulation compliance
Most of the companies that implement DfE will eventually complied government regulations regarding the environmental impact of products and production processes. Governments would give lots of attention the disposal and recycle of products at the end of their useful life and the material used by the items. Applying DfE is also more cost effective than trying to modify existing products and processes to meet governmental specifications.
2.1.4 Future regulations
By implementing DfE strategies into their business plans, company will be better prepared to meet the future environmental challenges. For companies that do not implement DfE, they will be in a hard situation when new regulations take place.
2.1.5 Employees Satisfaction
Many citizens are becoming more environmentally conscious and as employees they choose to work for environmentally conscious employers.
2.1 .6 Increasing In Profitability
One of the most important factors in changing industry's attitudes on environmental design is that DfE will eventually increase profitability. By reducing pollution at the source and designing products and processes will generally result in increased efficiency and reduced operating cost
The design stage in the new product development process is the most critical stage in the entire cycle. Ideas, objectives, and concerns addressed in this stage have a ripple effect throughout the entire NPD process. Companies have come to realize that in order to produce environmentally safe products in a cost effective manner, they must address environmental issues in the design stages of the NPD process. This is a process called green design or design for environment.
A representation of systems engineering process flow is shown in Figure 1. The initial stage of design is classified as “Concept Development.” This involves determining the needs of the system, exploring concepts, as well as formulating a well-defined concept or set of concepts. The second stage of systems engineering design is “Engineering Development”. In the Engineering Development phase the defined concepts undergo development, testing, evaluation and result in feedback which can re-direct the 4 concept development phase or lead into the final Post Development phase. Although Figure 1 is represented as a linear progression through the phases of design and development, in reality there are many feedback loops and embedded iterations within and between phases.
Figure 1: Concept of Development
Green design is the systematic consideration of environmental health, safety, preservation, and restoration issues during the new product development process. Some of the issues which DFE addresses include: environmental management, product disposal, product safety, pollution prevention, ecology, resource conservation, accident prevention, waste management, and occupational health and safety. This makes green design a tool which enhances environmental quality, as well as market competitiveness. Figure 2 below show the flow process of new product based on Design for Environment Method.
Figure 2: Design for Environment Flow Tools
Green design strategies can be broken into the two major categories of source reduction and waste management. Source reduction strategies attempt to eliminate the pollution at its source, while waste management strategies promote recycling, reusing, reclaiming, and refurbishing of parts and materials. Figure 3 below show the example of DFE strategy for the life cycle of the phone terminal with considering the two major categories of source reduction and waste management.
Figure 3: Life Cycle of the Phone Terminal
3.1Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
It is important to listen to customer requirements to obtain market needs and make them reflected on the product design. QFD is a method to collect vaguely expressed quality requirements (Voice of Customer: VOC) from the market and deploy them to actual design work. While QFD needs many phases for deeper hierarchical deployment, the authors use two phases to translate VOC up to parts characteristics. In phase I, VOC for a product are deployed to more detailed Engineering Metrics (EM) to clarify their positions. In phase II, the relationship between the above EM items and components of the product are clarified. Through these steps, the designer can identify which functions and components should be focused in order to satisfy customer requirements. The roles of QFD include the analysis between trade-offs items for design and identification of their product’s market competence through benchmarking processes. However, to make it simple, the authors decided to focus on creation of quality tables as they are the basic elements of this tool. (Keijiro, 2000)
3.1.1 Life Cycle Analysis
Life cycle analysis is an objective analytical tool which organizations use to analyze the environmental costs and benefits associated with different design decisions. This process takes into account all factors which affect the environment throughout each phase of a product's life cycle. The environmental effects of the Raw Material and Extraction, Manufacturing and Production, Consumer, Consumption , and Product Retirement phase are all measured and evaluated in the life cycle analysis. This information is then used by project designers to decide on various environmental tradeoffs options. Such analysis may be considered the ultimate environmental evaluations tool in the green design process. (Hundal, 2000)
3.1.2 Life Cycle Assessment
Life Cycle Design (LCD) is a term which has come to have a great deal of overlap with DFE (Keoleian, et al, 1995). It seeks to minimize the environmental burdens associated with a product’s life cycle and aims to integrate the environmental requirements into the product realization process. LCD uses system analysis of the product life cycle, beginning from the raw material extraction, through materials processing, manufacturing, distribution, use and its final disposal. It identifies and evaluates the different types of requirements: technical, ergonomic, economic, legal, environmental, cultural, etc. An efficient application of LCD requires management techniques such as concurrent engineering, and QFD (Hundal, 2000)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a method of checking the facts about the environmental burden of a product from its design through to production and then final disposal. An LCA can be used in the design of a new product or the evaluation of an existing product. LCA considers air, water and solid waste pollution generated when raw materials are extracted. It includes energy used in extraction of raw materials and pollution from manufacturing the product. Also, it accounts for environmental harm during distribution and use of product. LCA examines solid and liquid wastes that are loaded on to the environment upon disposal. LCA is a tool which is used to identify and measure the direct environmental, energy, and resource impacts, indirect environmental, energy, and resource impacts with a product, process or service. (Nowosielski, 2007)
3.1.3 Source Reduction
Source reduction strategies are regarded as the most practical solutions to reduce and eliminating waste and by-products. These strategies attempt to reduce and eliminate waste and toxic by-products at their source by removing all or some of the material that initially creates them. This may entail dropping or combining product features, improving process controls and yields, or extending the product's life cycle
3.1.4 Waste Management
Waste management strategies are not aimed at reducing the pollutants at its source, rather they concentrate on making waste disposal easier. The goal of these strategies is to design products that are easy to recycle, remanufacture, decompose and incinerate. The products must also be able to disassemble easily in order for the materials to be recycled and remanufactured.
4 Hybrid / Electric Car
Nowadays, in day life people have to keep moving from one part to another part in order to reach their destination. That situation make the cars is a necessary to the people for transportation needed. The cars are sought out to be one of the best modes of transportation. But, with the rising economy, people tend to buy cars that have better mileage. But still we think of trading cars with something that is cheaper when we look at the rising petrol costs. Though we do not think much about the environmental effects, we must still consider the fact that cars are the major contributors to pollution. To an extent, hybrid cars can be a remedy to many of these problems. A lot of car manufacturers have started new plants to produce their own version of hybrid cars. Today's production hybrid cars are marketed by a singular benefit; increased fuel economy. Even though it is true that hybrid cars can save drivers a bundle on gasoline and even earn them a tax rebate the much more important benefit is the very significant reduction in emissions. Generally, hybrid cars produce 80% less harmful pollutants and greenhouse gases than comparable gasoline cars. This translates to less airborne pollutants, and a cleaner earth.
4.1 What Are Hybrid Cars?
In simple words, the word hybrid refers to anything that has a combination of two different ideas. When a car uses two different ideas to move, it is called a hybrid car. Usually our cars run on petrol, diesel or gas. But their inefficiency, as explained earlier, led to the invention of electric cars. But, since electric cars also had disadvantages of frequent battery charging and inefficient long drives, there evolved a combination of both. When gas and electricity were used in the combined mode, a better solution was made to the inefficiency and mileage.
A user of a car always asks for some minimum requirements while using a car like:
i. For long distances, the car must run for at least 450 kilometres before refuelling.
ii. The drive should be smooth and easy.
iii. The car should maintain a good speed so as to cope up with other cars in traffic.
iv. Easy and fast refuelling of cars.
v. A good mileage
vi. Less pollution
Though most of the conventional cars can provide the first four requirements correctly, they are very much backwards in the case of mileage and pollution. Electric cars, on the other hand can provide a very good mileage and very less pollution. But, the first four requirements will be let down. A combined use of both electric and gas energy will clearly find all these requirements satisfactory.
As Hybrid cars use two energy sources, a lot of energy consumption was reduced for travel (As both the gas and electricity share their energy.) As explained in my article about electric cars, there would not be a disadvantage of recharging the battery frequently. They will be spontaneously charged, while the car is running. Apart from the mileage, the car has also proved to give a performance almost adequate to a conventional car. Due to its improved mileage and reduced pollution, the governments in most countries have been pleased and have helped in its promotion.
4.2 Parts Of A Hybrid Car
There are mainly 5 essentials for a hybrid car. They are
- Conventional car engine – It can be a gasoline engine or also petrol or diesel respectively. But whatever engine is used, will be more advanced than the usual ones, as they have to work together with the electrical system. They will be smaller with greater efficiency and lesser emissions.
- Fuel Tank – For storing the fuel needed to rum the car engine.
- Batteries – Batteries are needed to store and release energy as required by the car. The energy from the battery is taken by the motor.
- Electric Motor and generator – Though motors can act as generators, both of them are needed for this car. A motor will be needed to take energy from the batteries and accelerate the car. Generators, on the other hand, are needed to produce the electrical power.
Transmission System – The entire transmissions that were performed in a conventional car will be done here as well, but in the hybrid manner.
4.3 Series And Parallel Hybrids
There are mainly two types of hybrid cars – Series and Parallel. They differ in the manner in which the two energy sources are combined.
The series hybrid has the generator driven by the engine. This generator is used to charge the batteries and also drive the electric motor, which drives the transmission. Thus power to the vehicle is never directly given by the engine.
Parallel hybrid, on the other hand has both the engine and the electric motor to drive the transmission at the same time. This transmission is then used to turn the wheels. The fuel is given to the engine and the motor is supplied power by the motor. Parallel hybrids are considered straight forward, and hence are used widely. Take a look at the block diagram of a Hybrid Car.
Figure 4: Hybrid Car Block Diagram.
4.4 How Hybrid Cars Work
To know the working of a hybrid car, we must understand the basics of Mild Hybrid cars and Full Hybrid cars.
In mild hybrid cars, the electrical motor is used only when additional power is needed. The conventional engine is used to provide most of the power. The electrical motor alone cannot operate the vehicle. Whenever power is needed the electric motor acts as a side-kick to the conventional engine. Some vehicles that carry this concept is the Honda Civic and Insight.
In a full hybrid car, the electrical energy is used while the car needs less power. The gasoline energy is used when the car needs less power. Thus at lower speeds the battery drives the vehicle and at higher speed the gasoline drives the vehicle. This technology has been used in cars like Toyota Prius and Ford Escape.
Both of them though have a little different mode of operation provide the same amount of efficiency.
Since both electric motor and an engine are used simultaneously, the size of the engine will be considerably smaller than the usual ones. But they will be a lot more advanced than the usual ones. The motor, on the other hand is also used to give power for the air conditioner, power windows, water pump and also power steering.
Take a look at the diagram given below. It shows the actual working of the hybrid car Toyota Prius. During the starting position, none of the system is working. After the car starts to move, it is in the normal driving mode. Thus the car will automatically change to the use of electric motor. Later when the car is accelerated and gains speed, it switches from the use f motor to the use of engine. Thus the gasoline engine supplies the required power. This switching is carried out automatically, with the help of an on-board computer. Since the battery has lost some of its charge, it needs to be immediately recharged. This is also done automatically. When the car starts to go in a uniform speed or when it is descending a road, the generator starts charging the battery.
Figure 5: Working of Hybrid Cars
4.5 Comparison between a Hybrid Car and A Gasoline Car
If you compare the power drive of both the cars, you will see that both of them are equally efficient. While a gasoline car has a bigger engine, the hybrid car has a smaller engine. Conventional cars have enough power to attain the required speed, and that too at the required time. In a hybrid car, as the engine is smaller, it is more efficient. It has lighter parts and reduced number of cylinder. The fuel required for smaller engines is lesser than the other ones. Since bigger engines have all the pistons in a bigger size, they need more energy when they make an up and down movement in the cylinder. Even if the car is not moving, the engine may be on. At this time also the big engine cylinders use fuel.
If both the cars are moving equally the car with gas engine will use its whole single power to drive the car. The hybrid car will also need the same output power to drive the car. But, as it is smaller, it makes lesser power than the bigger one. This is when the electric motor comes into play. They provide the rest of the power from the battery to compensate the balance.
4.6 Advantages of Hybrid Cars
- Very less pollution.
- Better mileage.
- More reliable and comfortable.
- Very clean cars due to fewer emissions.
- Batteries need not be charged by an external source.
- Warranties available for batteries as well as motors.
- Less dependence on fuels.
4.7 Disadvantages of Hybrid Cars
- The initial cost will be very high – higher than other cars.
- Since a lot of batteries will be needed, the car will be very heavy.
- As there are electrical components, there is risk of shock during an accident.
- The vehicle can be repaired only by professionals.
- Spare parts will be very costly and rare.
4.8 Tips To Improve Fuel Efficiency
- Most people buy tires that provide good traction for all weather conditions. Little do they look out for efficiency? If stiffer tires with higher pressure are used they reduce the friction by two times than the usual.
- For any car, as the weight and size of the car increases, the efficiency decreases. So remove the unwanted weight and thus increase efficiency. Make the body using lighter metals like aluminium and magnesium.
- Aerodynamics plays an important role in the fuel consumption of your car. For this you have to reduce the frontal area of the car, thereby reducing the air drag.
- The energy wasted from your hybrid car includes the energy wasted as heat. If you could recycle that energy and reuse it, you can surely get more fuel efficiency. When you apply brakes, you are throwing out energy from the car. This energy can be stored in the battery through a process called regenerative braking. Instead of applying the brakes, the electric motor drives the hybrid to reduce the speed of the car. This way, the electric motor acts as a generator and charges the batteries while the car is slowing down.
5 Discussion and conclusion
World Commission on Environment and Development, (WCED) defined sustainable development as; “Sustainable development is development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs” (Giudice, et al. 2006). It been discussed for many years. However, it is only when global climates begin to change drastically and effect the survival of human race with numerous calamities did it then gets the stronger international awareness on the importance of appreciating nature for future stability (n.p., 2010). There are 5 key factors in sustainable development and the role of environmental protection:
i. Establish environmental goals, regulation, incentives and standard
ii. Make more effective use of economic instruments
iii. Broaden environment assessment
iv. Encourage action by industry
v. Increase capacity to deal with industrial hazards
vi. Strengthen international efforts to help developing countries.
(Giudice,F., et al. 2006 )
In the human life activities, having the significant effect on the environment, industrial processes are unavoidable. Hence, the increasing attention paid on the environmental consequences of these processes has led to the evolution of a new vision of productive systems. Starting from the concepts of sustainable development and industrial ecology, these are interpreted in the contact of design of industrial processes and product. Design for the Environment (DfE) interpreted the new idea. It is define as the methodology base on constantly evaluating the potential impacts implicated in the entire life cycle of the product, throughout the whole courses of the design process, and directed at the systematic reduction or elimination of these impacts.
The most important benefit of DfE can only be obtained when the entire life cycle of the product is already taken into consideration at the very begin of stage. Product life cycle (PLC) can be referred as many shape such as product management, strategic planning, cost effective, inventory control, etc, that come with significant role of the phase or level concern (Chang and Chang, 2003) and (Xie, and Simon, 2006).
Base on product life cycle (PLC), there are five steps or phase that a product have to gone trough for it entire life cycle:
However, only with the systematic vision of the product over its life cycle, that can ensure that the design activities not only identifies the product’s environmental criticalities, but also reduces them effectively and avoid simple transferring impacts from one arena to others. For a complete analysis directed at evaluating and reducing the environmental impact of the product, it is necessary to consider, together with the phases of development and production, those phase of use, recovery, and treatment of the entire product. All these phase must be understood not only in relation to the specific player involved, but also from wider perspective beyond the imagination.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an objective procedure use to evaluate environmental effect associated with product life cycle, through the quantitative determination of all the exchange flow between the product-system and the ecosphere in all the transformation processes involved, from cradle to the grave (n.p., 2010).. LCA methodology is described by four phases:
· goal and scope definitions;
· inventory analysis;
· impact assessment; and
Toyota for example, base on their philosophy that to build cars that are environmental friendly to the people and the earth, come the concept of hybrid car. As a biggest car manufacturer in the world Toyota is very much aware of the tremendous impact it will be to the environment. Based on the concept Cradle-to-Grave (n.p., 2010) concept, Toyota developed the hybrid car and implement the structure approach toward managing these impact by integrating green practice into their manufactured product.
As a conclusion, all human being have their part in conserving the sustainable to the survival of the future generation. They are a lot of models and ideas develop in order to achieve the target of sustainable development and one of the important pieces of it is the DfE. DfE employs a variety of design approaches that attempt to reduce the overall human health and environmental impact of a product, process or service, where impacts are considered across its life cycle. Big multi global company should play the role of ‘go green’ concept to educate their consumer by the implementation of “green technology” and “green concept” in their product.
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